After visiting Longyearbyen, the northernmost settlement with more than one thousand residents, and Alta, the northernmost settlement with more than ten thousand residents, I asked which towns hold the title "biggest town relative to its distance from the northern pole".
Namely, we look for towns that no town situated more northern is bigger.
To get data on towns' populations and locations, I used the following SPARQL query (see here for similar approach):
SELECT DISTINCT ?place ?placeLabel ?countryLabel ?location ?population ?pit WHERE { SERVICE wikibase:label { bd:serviceParam wikibase:language "en". } ?place p:P31 ?sub. ?sub (ps:P31/(wdt:P279*)) wd:Q7930989. ?place wdt:P1082 ?population . ?place wdt:P625 ?location. ?place wdt:P17 ?country. OPTIONAL { ?place p:P1082/pq:P585 ?pit . } FILTER(?population > 1000) FILTER(geof:latitude(?location) > 55) FILTER NOT EXISTS { ?place p:P1082/pq:P585 ?pop_date_ . FILTER (?pop_date_ > ?pit) } }
This gives 1706 towns whose latest population count is more than 1000 and lies above 55N latitude.
We get the following list:
The same can be done to find southern towns: